Why in News?
50 years of World Heritage Sites
At its World Heritage Convention on November 16, 1972, UNESCO adopted an international treaty that for the first time linked the concepts of nature conservation and preservation of cultural properties. The World Heritage Sites program was sparked by Egypt’s planned construction of the Aswan High Dam, which would have flooded a large swath of the Nile Valley and thousands of archeological treasures.
Mesa Verde National Park, (where Ancestral Puebloans lived for seven centuries) was among the first World Heritage Sites chosen by the UNESCO committee, in 1978.
About World Heritage Convention:
The Convention defines the kind of natural or cultural sites which can be considered for inscription on the World Heritage List.
The most significant feature of the 1972 World Heritage Convention is that it links together in a single document the concepts of nature conservation and the preservation of cultural properties. The Convention recognizes the way in which people interact with nature, and the fundamental need to preserve the balance between the two.
The “Five Cs”
Strengthen the Credibility of the World Heritage List, as a representative and geographically balanced testimony of cultural and natural properties of outstanding universal value.
Ensure the effective Conservation of World Heritage properties.
Promote the development of effective Capacity-building measures, including assistance for preparing the nomination of properties to the World Heritage List, for the understanding and implementation of the World Heritage Convention and related instruments.
Increase public awareness, involvement and support for World Heritage through communication.
Enhance the role of communities in the implementation of the World Heritage Convention.
The idea of creating an international movement for protecting heritage emerged after World War I. The 1972 Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage developed from the merging of two separate movements: the first focusing on the preservation of cultural sites, and the other dealing with the conservation of nature.
UNESCO HERITAGE SITES IN INDIA
UNESCO Natural World Heritage Sites
UNESCO Natural World Heritage sites are those sites with distinctive cultural facets such as geological formations, physical, biological, and cultural landscapes.
The list of UNESCO Natural World Heritage sites in India is given below:
|Natural World Heritage Site||State||Year of Notification|
|Kaziranga National Park||Assam||1985|
|Keoladeo Ghana National Park||Rajasthan||1985|
|Manas Wildlife Sanctuary||Assam||1985|
|Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers||Uttarakhand||1988, 2005|
|Sundarbans National Park||West Bengal||1987|
|Western Ghats||Maharashtra,Goa,Karnataka,Tamil Nadu andKerala||2012|
|Great Himalayan National Park||Himachal Pradesh||2014|
UNESCO Cultural World Heritage Sites
UNESCO Cultural World Heritage sites are those sites with unique cultural facets such as Paintings, monuments, architecture, etc.
The list of UNESCO Cultural World Heritage sites in India is given below:
|Cultural World Heritage Site||State||Year of Notification|
|Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple||Telangana||2021|
|The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement||Chandigarh||2016|
|Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai||Maharashtra||2018|
|Historic City of Ahmedabad||Gujarat||2017|
|Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University)||Bihar||2016|
|Hill Forts of Rajasthan||Rajasthan||2013|
|The Jantar Mantar||Rajasthan||2010|
|Red Fort Complex||Delhi||2007|
|Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park||Gujarat||2004|
|Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus||Maharashtra||2004|
|Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka||Madhya Pradesh||2003|
|Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya||Bihar||2002|
|Mountain Railways of India||Tamil Nadu||1999|
|Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi||Delhi||1993|
|Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi||Delhi||1993|
|Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi||Madhya Pradesh||1989|
|Great Living Chola Temples||Tamil Nadu||1987|
|Group of Monuments at Pattadakal||Karnataka||1987|
|Churches and Convents of Goa||Goa||1986|
|Fatehpur Sikri||Uttar Pradesh||1986|
|Group of Monuments at Hampi||Karnataka||1986|
|Khajuraho Group of Monuments||Madhya Pradesh||1986|
|Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram||Tamil Nadu||1984|
|Sun Temple, Konarak||Orissa||1984|
|Agra Fort||Uttar Pradesh||1983|
|Taj Mahal||Uttar Pradesh||1983|
UNESCO Mixed World Heritage Sites
A mixed site comprises components of both natural and cultural importance:
|Mixed World Heritage Site||State||Year of Notification|
|Khangchendzonga National Park||Sikkim||2016|
Check list here: UNESCO HERITAGE SITE LIST